Background: Malnutrition is often present in vascular surgery patient during hospital admission. The present evidence of the consequence malnutrition has on morbidity and mortality is limited.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of nutritional status on out-of-hospital mortality in vascular surgery patients.
Methods: An observational cohort study was performed, studying non-cardiac vascular surgery patients surviving hospital admission 18 years or older treated in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. The exposure of interest was nutritional status categorized as well nourished, at-risk for malnutrition, nonspecific malnutrition or protein-energy malnutrition. The all cause 90-day mortality following hospital discharge was the primary outcome. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated by multivariable logistic regression models.
Results: This cohort included 4432 patients comprised of 48% women and a mean age 61.7 years. After evaluation by a registered dietitian, 3819 patients were determined to be well nourished, 215 patients were at-risk for malnutrition, 351 had non-specific malnutrition and 47 patients had protein-energy malnutrition. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, medical versus surgical Diagnosis Related Group type, Deyo-Charlson index, length of stay, and vascular Current Procedural Terminology code category, the 90-day post-discharge mortality odds ratio for patients with non-specific malnutrition OR 1.96 (95%CI 1.21, 3.17) and for protein-energy malnutrition OR 3.58 (95%CI 1.59, 8.06), all relative to patients without malnutrition.
Discussion: Nutritional status is a strong predictor of out-of-hospital mortality. This suggests that patient with vascular disease suffering from malnutrition could benefit from more intensified In-hospital and out-of-hospital dietary guidance and interventions.