Systemic inflammation induced by periodontitis is suggested to be the link between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this work was to explore the oral microbiome in periodontitis in relation to disease severity and systemic inflammation. The saliva and subgingival microbiome from periodontal pocket samples of patients with severe (n = 12) and mild periodontitis (n = 13) were analyzed using metagenomic shotgun sequencing. The taxa and pathways abundances were quantified. The diversity was assessed and the abundances to phenotype associations were performed using ANCOM and linear regression. A panel of inflammatory markers was measured in blood and was associated with taxa abundance. The microbial diversity and species richness did not differ between severe and mild periodontitis in either saliva or periodontal pockets. However, there were significant differences in the microbial composition between severe and mild periodontitis in the subgingival microbiome (i.e., pocket samples) and, in a lower grade, in saliva, and this is positively associated with systemic inflammatory markers. The "red complex" and "cluster B" abundances in periodontal pockets were strongly associated with inflammatory markers interleukin-6 and the white blood cell count. Our data suggest that systemic inflammation in severe periodontitis may be driven by the oral microbiome and may support the indirect (inflammatory) mechanism for the association between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease.