Parental rejection in early adolescence predicts a persistent ADHD symptom trajectory across adolescence

Djûke M. Brinksma, Pieter J. Hoekstra, Annelies De Bildt, Jan K. Buitelaar, Barbara J. Van Den Hoofdakker, Catharina A. Hartman, Andrea Dietrich*

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

OnderzoeksoutputAcademicpeer review

3 Citaten (Scopus)
70 Downloads (Pure)


Despite a general decrease of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms during adolescence, these may persist in some individuals but not in others. Prior cross-sectional studies have shown that parenting style and their interaction with candidate genes are associated with ADHD symptoms. However, there is a lack of longitudinal research examining the independent and interactive effects of parenting and plasticity genes in predicting the course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms across adolescence. Here, we investigated how children perceived their parents' parenting style (i.e., rejection, overprotection, and emotional warmth) at the age of 11, and their interaction with DRD4,MAOA, and 5-HTTLPR genotypes on parent-reported ADHD symptoms at three time points (mean ages 11.1, 13.4, and 16.2 years) in 1730 adolescents from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Growth Mixture Modeling in Mplus identified four ADHD symptom trajectories: low, moderate stable, high decreasing, and high persistent. Perceived parental rejection predicted class membership in the high persistent trajectory compared to the other classes (p < 0.001, odds ratios between 2.14 and 3.74). Gene-environment interactions were not significantly related to class membership. Our results indicate a role of perceived parental rejection in the persistence of ADHD symptoms. Perceived parental rejection should, therefore, be taken into consideration during prevention and treatment of ADHD in young adolescents.

Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)139–153
Aantal pagina's15
TijdschriftEuropean Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Vroegere onlinedatum17-jul.-2021
StatusPublished - jan.-2023

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