Parkinsonism in Genetic Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Systematic Review

Emma N.M.M. von Scheibler, Agnies M. van Eeghen, Tom J. de Koning, Mark L. Kuijf, Janneke R. Zinkstok, Annelieke R. Müller, Thérèse A.M.J. van Amelsvoort, Erik Boot*

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

Onderzoeksoutputpeer review

4 Citaten (Scopus)
90 Downloads (Pure)


Background: With advances in clinical genetic testing, associations between genetic neurodevelopmental disorders and parkinsonism are increasingly recognized. In this review, we aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of reports on parkinsonism in genetic neurodevelopmental disorders and summarize findings related to genetic diagnosis, clinical features and proposed disease mechanisms.

Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed and Embase on June 15, 2021. Search terms for parkinsonism and genetic neurodevelopmental disorders, using generic terms and the Human Phenotype Ontology, were combined. Study characteristics and descriptive data were extracted from the articles using a modified version of the Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group's data extraction template. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020191035).

Results: The literature search yielded 208 reports for data-extraction, describing 69 genetic disorders in 422 patients. The five most reported from most to least frequent were: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration, Down syndrome, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, and Rett syndrome. Notable findings were an almost equal male to female ratio, an early median age of motor onset (26 years old) and rigidity being more common than rest tremor. Results of dopaminergic imaging and response to antiparkinsonian medication often supported the neurodegenerative nature of parkinsonism. Moreover, neuropathology results showed neuronal loss in the majority of cases. Proposed disease mechanisms included aberrant mitochondrial function and disruptions in neurotransmitter metabolism, endosomal trafficking, and the autophagic-lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasome system.

Conclusion: Parkinsonism has been reported in many GNDs. Findings from this study may provide clues for further research and improve management of patients with GNDs and/or parkinsonism.

Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)17-31
Aantal pagina's15
TijdschriftMovement Disorders Clinical Practice
Nummer van het tijdschrift1
Vroegere onlinedatum24-sep.-2022
StatusPublished - jan.-2023

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