Objective: This study evaluates the contribution of measures for social cognition (SC), executive functioning (EF) and dysexecutive behavior to the statistical prediction of social and vocational participation in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), taking into account age and injury severity. Method: A total of 63 patients with moderate to severe TBI participated. They were administered a semi-structured Role Resumption List for social (RRL-SR) and vocational participation (RRL-RTW). EF was measured with planning- and switching tasks. Assessment of SC included tests for facial affect recognition and Theory of Mind (ToM). Dysexecutive behavior was proxy-rated with a questionnaire. Additionally, healthy controls were assessed with the same protocol. Results: Patients with TBI performed significantly worse on tests and had significantly more behavioral problems compared to healthy controls. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses for the TBI group revealed that SC accounted for 22% extra variance in RRL-RTW and 10% extra variance in RRL-SR, which was significant over and above the amounts of variance explained by EF, dysexecutive behavior, age and injury severity. Conclusions: Our findings underline the added value of measures of SC and dysexecutive behavior in the prediction of social and vocational participation post-TBI. In particular, impairments in ToM, and dysexecutive behavior were related to a lower participation making them important targets for rehabilitation.