Patients’ views on the implementation of artificial intelligence in radiology: Development and validation of a standardized questionnaire

Yfke P. Ongena*, Marieke Haan, Derya Yakar, Thomas C. Kwee

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

OnderzoeksoutputAcademicpeer review

15 Citaten (Scopus)
102 Downloads (Pure)


The patients’ view on the implementation of artificial intelligence (AI) in radiology is still mainly unexplored territory. The aim of this article is to develop and validate a standardized patient questionnaire on the implementation of AI in radiology.

Six domains derived from a previous qualitative study were used to develop a questionnaire, and cognitive interviews were used as pretest method. One hundred fifty-five patients scheduled for CT, MRI, and/or conventional radiography filled out the questionnaire. To find underlying latent variables, we used exploratory factor analysis with principal axis factoring and oblique promax rotation. Internal consistency of the factors was measured with Cronbach’s alpha and composite reliability.

The exploratory factor analysis revealed five factors on AI in radiology: (1) distrust and accountability (overall, patients were moderately negative on this subject), (2) procedural knowledge (patients generally indicated the need for their active engagement), (3) personal interaction (overall, patients preferred personal interaction), (4) efficiency (overall, patients were ambiguous on this subject), and (5) being informed (overall, scores on these items were not outspoken within this factor). Internal consistency was good for three factors (1, 2, and 3), and acceptable for two (4 and 5).

This study yielded a viable questionnaire to measure acceptance among patients of the implementation of AI in radiology. Additional data collection with confirmatory factor analysis may provide further refinement of the scale.

Key Points
• Although AI systems are increasingly developed, not much is known about patients’ views on AI in radiology.

• Since it is important that newly developed questionnaires are adequately tested and validated, we did so for a questionnaire measuring patients’ views on AI in radiology, revealing five factors.

• Successful implementation of AI in radiology requires assessment of social factors such as subjective norms towards the technology.
Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)1-8
Aantal pagina's9
TijdschriftEuropean Radiology
Vroegere onlinedatum8-nov-2019
StatusPublished - 2020

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