This article presents an overview of imaging agents for PET that have been applied for research and diagnostic purposes in patients affected by dementia. Classified by the target which the agents visualize, seven groups of tracers can be distinguished, namely radiopharmaceuticals for: (1) Misfolded proteins (beta-amyloid, tau, alpha-synuclein), (2) Neuroinflammation (overexpression of translocator protein), (3) Elements of the cholinergic system, (4) Elements of monoamine neurotransmitter systems, (5) Synaptic density, (6) Cerebral energy metabolism (glucose transport/ hexokinase), and (7) Various other proteins. This last category contains proteins involved in mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation or cognitive impairment, which may also be potential therapeutic targets. Many receptors belong to this category: AMPA, cannabinoid, colony stimulating factor 1, metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 and 5 (mGluR1, mGluR5), opioid (kappa, mu), purinergic (P2X7, P2Y12), sigma-1, sigma-2, receptor for advanced glycation endproducts, and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1, besides several enzymes: cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 (COX-1, COX-2), phosphodiesterase-5 and 10 (PDE5, PDE10), and tropomyosin receptor kinase. Significant advances in neuroimaging have been made in the last 15 years. The use of 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) for quantification of regional cerebral glucose metabolism is well-established. Three tracers for beta-amyloid plaques have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency. Several tracers for tau neurofibrillary tangles are already applied in clinical research. Since many novel agents are in the preclinical or experimental stage of development, further advances in nuclear medicine imaging can be expected in the near future. PET studies with established tracers and tracers for novel targets may result in early diagnosis and better classification of neurodegenerative disorders and in accurate monitoring of therapy trials which involve these targets. PET data have prognostic value and may be used to assess the response of the human brain to interventions, or to select the appropriate treatment strategy for an individual patient. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)196-229
Aantal pagina's34
TijdschriftSeminars in Nuclear Medicine
Nummer van het tijdschrift3
Vroegere onlinedatum24-jan-2021
StatusPublished - mei-2021

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