Physical and virtual carbon metabolism of global cities

Shaoqing Chen, Bin Chen, Kuishuang Feng, Zhu Liu, Neil Fromer, Xianchun Tan, Ahmed Alsaedi, Tasawar Hayat, Helga Weisz, Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, Klaus Hubacek*

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

    OnderzoeksoutputAcademicpeer review

    26 Citaten (Scopus)
    62 Downloads (Pure)


    Urban activities have profound and lasting effects on the global carbon balance. Here we develop a consistent metabolic approach that combines two complementary carbon accounts, the physical carbon balance and the fossil fuel-derived gaseous carbon footprint, to track carbon coming into, being added to urban stocks, and eventually leaving the city. We find that over 88% of the physical carbon in 16 global cities is imported from outside their urban boundaries, and this outsourcing of carbon is notably amplified by virtual emissions from upstream activities that contribute 33–68% to their total carbon inflows. While 13–33% of the carbon appropriated by cities is immediately combusted and released as CO2, between 8 and 24% is stored in durable household goods or becomes part of other urban stocks. Inventorying carbon consumed and stored for urban metabolism should be given more credit for the role it can play in stabilizing future global climate.

    Originele taal-2English
    TijdschriftNature Communications
    Nummer van het tijdschrift1
    StatusPublished - 1-dec-2020

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