Both the referring clinician and the nuclear medicine specialist must be aware of the main known or potential pitfalls that can occur in infection and inflammation imaging. They must decide in consensus which tracer and which imaging protocol should be used for a specific indication. This article provides an overview of all the pitfalls and limitations of nuclear medicine techniques to image infections and inflammation. Both general pitfalls and pitfalls in specific clinical entities are discussed. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.