New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is a frequent complication in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Although oxidative stress has been associated with diabetes mellitus, data regarding NODAT are limited. We aimed to prospectively investigate the long-term association between the oxidative stress biomarker malondialdehyde (measured by high-performance liquid chromatography) and NODAT in an extensively phenotyped cohort of non-diabetic RTR with a functioning graft 1 year. We included 516 RTR (51 +/- 13 years-old, 57% male). Median plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) was 2.55 (IQR, 1.92-3.66) mu mol/L. During a median follow-up of 5.3 (IQR, 4.6-6.0) years, 56 (11%) RTR developed NODAT. In Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses, MDA was inversely associated with NODAT, independent of immunosuppressive therapy, transplant-specific covariates, lifestyle, inflammation, and metabolism parameters (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.36-0.83 per 1-SD increase; p <0.01). Dietary antioxidants intake (e.g., vitamin E, -lipoic acid, and linoleic acid) were effect-modifiers of the association between MDA and NODAT, with particularly strong inverse associations within the subgroup of RTR with relatively higher dietary antioxidants intake. In conclusion, plasma MDA concentration is inversely and independently associated with long-term risk of NODAT in RTR. Our findings support a potential underrecognized role of oxidative stress in post-transplantation glucose homeostasis.