Eleven patients (mean age 54 years, range 46-67 years) with osteoarthritis limited to the trapeziometacarpal-1 joint underwent a distal trapezium resection. In nine cases the palmaris longus tendon and in two cases a Swanson condylar implant was used as interposition material. The results were very disappointing. Only one patient was satisfied. Nine patients were reoperated upon (mean interval period 43 months, range 3-110) because of pain. in two cases, the cause was dislocation of the Swanson condylar implant. In the other seven cases, prominent bone on the trapezium, ulnar osteophytes, scaphotrapezial osteoarthritis, sclerosis of the trapezium remnant, and impingement were causal factors. In future, the selection of patients fur this operation will be performed with even greater care. Despite these poor results, a definitive conclusion about the indication for this procedure can only be made after evaluation of an improved operative procedure.