Background. Findings on the association between posttransplant anemia (PTA) andmortality in posttransplant patients are scarce. This study explored whether PTA shortly after kidney transplantation (KT) predicts mortality at up to 10 years' follow-up, stratified for chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages. Methods. PTA was divided into 3 categories according to the hemoglobin (Hb) value: severe (Hb <10 g/dl), mild (10.0 g/dl = 12 g/dl). CKD stages were estimated using the CKD-EPI formula and divided into 2 groups: CKD1-2 and CKD3-5. Cox regression, stratified according to CKD, was performed to identify whether different categories of PTA predicted mortality in KT recipients. Results. Age, being female, and both mild and severe PTA contributed significantly to the Cox regression model on mortality in CKD1-2. In the Cox regression model for mortality in CKD3-5, age and severe PTA contributed significantly to this model. Conclusion. PTA shortly after KT increased the risk of mortality at up to 10 years' follow-up. Even mild PTA is associated with a 6-fold higher risk of mortality and severe PTA with a 10-fold higher risk of mortality in CKD1-2. Clinical evaluation and treatment of anemia might reduce the higher risk of mortality in patients with PTA in early stages of CKD after KT.