Practical Saccade Prediction for Head-Mounted Displays: Towards a Comprehensive Model

Elena Arabadzhiyska, Cara Tursun, Hans-peter Seidel, Piotr Didyk

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Eye-tracking technology has started to become an integral component of new display devices such as virtual and augmented reality headsets. Applications of gaze information range from new interaction techniques that exploit eye patterns to gaze-contingent digital content creation. However, system latency is still a significant issue in many of these applications because it breaks the synchronization between the current and measured gaze positions. Consequently, it may lead to unwanted visual artifacts and degradation of the user experience. In this work, we focus on foveated rendering applications where the quality of an image is reduced towards the periphery for computational savings. In foveated rendering, the presence of system latency leads to delayed updates to the rendered frame, making the quality degradation visible to the user. To address this issue and to combat system latency, recent work proposes using saccade landing position prediction to extrapolate gaze information from delayed eye tracking samples. Although the benefits of such a strategy have already been demonstrated, the solutions range from simple and efficient ones, which make several assumptions about the saccadic eye movements, to more complex and costly ones, which use machine learning techniques. However, it is unclear to what extent the prediction can benefit from accounting for additional factors and how more complex predictions can be performed efficiently to respect the latency requirements. This paper presents a series of experiments investigating the importance of different factors for saccades prediction in common virtual and augmented reality applications. In particular, we investigate the effects of saccade orientation in 3D space and smooth pursuit eye-motion (SPEM) and how their influence compares to the variability across users. We also present a simple, yet efficient post-hoc correction method that adapts existing saccade prediction methods to handle these factors without performing extensive data collection. Furthermore, our investigation and the correction technique may also help future developments of machine-learning-based techniques by limiting the required amount of training data.
Originele taal-2English
TijdschriftAcm transactions on applied perception
StatusAccepted/In press - sep.-2022

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