Prevalence and Accuracy of Information on CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9 Related Substrate and Inhibitor Co-Prescriptions in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study as Part of the PharmLines Initiative

Muh Akbar Bahar*, Jens H. J. Bos, Sander D. Borgsteede, Aafje Dotinga, Rolinde A. Alingh, Bob Wilffert, Eelko Hak

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

Onderzoeksoutput: ArticleAcademicpeer review

1 Citaat (Scopus)
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Drug-drug interaction (DDI) is one of the main contributors to adverse drug reactions and therefore, it is important to study its frequency in the population. We aimed to investigate frequency and concordance on CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9 (CYP2D6/2C19/2C9)-mediated potential DDIs at the Lifelines cohort and linked data from the pharmacy database


As part of the University of Groningen PharmLines Initiative, data were collected on CYP2D6/2C19/2C9-related substrate/inhibitors from entry questionnaires of Lifelines participants and linked information from the pharmacy database CYP2D6/2C19/2C9 related co-prescriptions were divided based on the type of drugs i.e. chronically used medication (CM) or occasionally used medication (OM). This resulted in the combination of two chronically used drugs (CM-CM), chronically and occasionally used medication (CM-OM), and two occasionally used drugs (OM-OM). To measure the agreement level, cohen's kappa statistics and test characteristics were used. Results were stratified by time window, gender, and age.


Among 80,837 medicine users in the Lifelines, about 1-2 per hundred participants were exposed to a CYP2D6/2C19/2C9-mediated potential DDI. Overall, the overlapping time window of three months produced the highest mean kappa values between the databases i.e. 0.545 (95% CI:0.544-0.545), 0.512 (95% CI:0.511-0.512), and 0.374 (95% CI:0.373-0.375), respectively. CM-CM had a better level of agreement (good) than CM-OM (fair to moderate) and OM-OM combination (poor to moderate). The influence of gender on concordance values was different for different CYPs. Among older persons, agreement levels were higher than for the younger population.


CYP2D6/2C19/2C9-mediated potential DDIs were frequent and concordance of data varied by time window, type of combination, sex and age. Subsequent studies should rather use a combination of self-reported and pharmacy database information.

Originele taal-2English
Aantal pagina's12
TijdschriftFrontiers in Pharmacology
StatusPublished - 8-mei-2020

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