A growing recognition of human rights in business has shed light on labor violations and abusive practices that prevail in many global supply chains. The recent 'modern slavery' crisis in the Thai fishing industry not only brings the question of government's responsibility to the fore but also increasingly highlights the role of private governance in global supply chains. This paper provides an updated analysis on the state of labor rights protection in the Thai fishing industry by analyzing responses from private business and civil society to the modern slavery scandal. We focus on three responses in particular: ethical recruitment policies, worker grievance mechanisms and worker associations. We analyse the effectiveness of these responses and delineate the potential of private governance as well as the limits that need to be overcome to ensure the protection of human and labor rights in global seafood supply chains.