Induced lung sputum is a valuable matrix in the study of respiratory diseases. Although the methodology of sputum collection has evolved to a point where it is repeatable and responsive to inflammation, its use in molecular profiling studies is still limited. Here, an in-depth lipid profiling of induced lung sputum using high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS) is described. An enormous complexity in lipid composition could be revealed. Over 1500 intact lipids, originating from 6 major lipid classes, have been accurately identified in 120 tit of induced sputum. By number and measured intensity, glycerophospholipids represent the largest lipid class, followed by sphingolipids, glycerolipids, fatty acyls, sterol lipids, and prenol lipids. Several prenol lipids, originating from tobacco, could be detected in the lung sputum of smokers. To illustrate the utility of the methodology in studying respiratory diseases, a comparative lipid screening was performed on lung sputum extracts in order to study the effect of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) on the lung barrier lipidome. Results show that sphingolipid expression in induced sputum significantly differs between smokers with and without COPD.