An integrated account of the molecular changes occurring during the process of cellular aging is crucial towards understanding the underlying mechanisms. Here, using novel culturing and computational methods as well as latest analytical techniques, we mapped the proteome and transcriptome during the replicative lifespan of budding yeast. With age, we found primarily proteins involved in protein biogenesis to increase relative to their transcript levels. Exploiting the dynamic nature of our data, we reconstructed high-level directional networks, where we found the same protein biogenesis-related genes to have the strongest ability to predict the behavior of other genes in the system. We identified metabolic shifts and the loss of stoichiometry in protein complexes as being consequences of aging. We propose a model whereby the uncoupling of protein levels of biogenesis-related genes from their transcript levels is causal for the changes occurring in aging yeast. Our model explains why targeting protein synthesis, or repairing the downstream consequences, can serve as interventions in aging.