Proteinuria converts hepatic heparan sulfate to an effective proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 enzyme binding partner: a historical appraisal of its origins and conceptual evolution

Pragyi Shrestha, Saleh Yazdani, Romain R. Vives, Rana El Masri, Wendy Dam, Bart van de Sluis, Jacob van den Born*

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

Onderzoeksoutput: ArticleAcademicpeer review

4 Citaten (Scopus)
22 Downloads (Pure)


Hepatic uptake of triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins is mediated by the low-density lipoprotein receptor, a low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein and the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, syndecan-1. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan also mediates low-density lipoprotein receptor degradation by a regulator of cholesterol homeostasis, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9), thereby hampering triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins uptake. In this study, we investigated the effects of proteinuria on PCSK9, hepatic heparan sulfate proteoglycan and plasma triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins. Adriamycin-injected rats developed proteinuria, elevated triglycerides and total cholesterol (all significantly increased). Proteinuria associated with triglycerides and total cholesterol and serum PCSK9 (all significant associations) without loss of the low-density lipoprotein receptor as evidenced by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting. In proteinuric rats, PCSK9 accumulated in sinusoids, whereas in control rats PCSK9 was localized in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Molecular profiling revealed that the heparan sulfate side chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycan to be hypersulfated in proteinuric rats. Competition assays revealed sulfation to be a major determinant for PCSK9 binding. PCSK9 partly colocalized with hypersulfated heparan sulfate in proteinuric rats, but not in control rats. Hence, proteinuria induces hypersulfated hepatic heparan sulfate proteoglycans, increasing their affinity to PCSK9. This might impair hepatic triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins uptake, causing proteinuria-associated dyslipidemia. Thus, our study reveals PCSK9/heparan sulfate may be a novel target to control dyslipidemia.

Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)1369-1381
Aantal pagina's13
TijdschriftKidney International
Nummer van het tijdschrift6
StatusPublished - jun.-2021

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