Quantification of systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow in univentricular physiology with 4D flow MRI

Floris-Jan S Ridderbos*, Frandics P Chan, Joost P van Melle, Tjark Ebels, Jeffrey A Feinstein, Rolf M F Berger, Tineke P Willems

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

OnderzoeksoutputAcademicpeer review

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PURPOSE: Systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow is a well-recognised phenomenon in patients with single ventricle physiology, but remains difficult to quantify. The aim was to compare the reported formula's that have been used for calculation of systemic-to-pulmonary-collateral flow to assess their consistency and to quantify systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow in patients with a Glenn and/or Fontan circulation using four-dimensional flow MRI (4D flow MR).

METHODS: Retrospective case-control study of Glenn and Fontan patients who had a 4D flow MR study. Flows were measured at the ascending aorta, left and right pulmonary arteries, left and right pulmonary veins, and both caval veins. Systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow was calculated using two formulas: 1) pulmonary veins - pulmonary arteries and 2) ascending aorta - caval veins. Anatomical identification of collaterals was performed using the 4D MR image set.

RESULTS: Fourteen patients (n = 11 Fontan, n = 3 Glenn) were included (age 26 [22-30] years). Systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow was significantly higher in the patients than the controls (n = 10, age 31.2 [15.1-38.4] years) with both formulas: 0.28 [0.09-0.5] versus 0.04 [-0.66-0.21] l/min/m2 (p = 0.036, formula 1) and 0.67 [0.24-0.88] versus -0.07 [-0.16-0.08] l/min/m2 (p < 0.001, formula 2). In patients, systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow differed significantly between formulas 1 and 2 (13% versus 26% of aortic flow, p = 0.038). In seven patients, veno-venous collaterals were detected and no aortopulmonary collaterals were visualised.

CONCLUSION: 4D flow MR is able to detect increased systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow and visualise collaterals vessels in Glenn and Fontan patients. However, the amount of systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow varies with the formula employed. Therefore, further research is necessary before it could be applied in clinical care.

Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)1634-1642
Aantal pagina's9
TijdschriftCardiology in the young
Nummer van het tijdschrift9
Vroegere onlinedatum19-sep.-2022
StatusPublished - sep.-2023

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