Biomaterial implants and devices increase the risk of microbial infections due to the biofilm mode of growth of infecting bacteria on implant materials, in which bacteria are protected against antibiotic treatment and the local immune system. Matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cell surface integrin receptors facilitate transmigration of inflammatory cells toward infected or inflamed tissue. This study investigates the relationship between MMP- and integrin-expression and the clearance of infecting Staphylococcus aureus around implanted biomaterials in a murine model. MMP- and integrin alpha v beta 3 expression were monitored in mice, with and without subcutaneously implanted biomaterial samples, in the absence and presence of bioluminescent S. aureus Xen36. Staphylococcal persistence was imaged longitudinally over time using bioluminescence imaging. The activatable MMPSense (R) 680 and integrin-targeted IntegriSense (R) 750 probes were injected on different days after implantation and their signal intensity and localisation monitored using fluorescence imaging. After sacrifice 7 or 16 days post-implantation, staphylococci from biomaterial samples and surrounding tissues were cultured on agar-plates and presence of host inflammatory cells was histologically evaluated. MMP- and integrin-expression were equally enhanced in presence of staphylococci or biomaterials up to 7 days post-implantation, but their localisation along the biomaterial samples differed. Bacterial clearance from tissue was higher in the absence of biomaterials. It is of clinical relevance that MMP- and integrin-expression were enhanced in presence of both staphylococci and biomaterials, although the immune system in the presence of biomaterials remained hampered in eradicating bacteria during the first 7 days post-implantation.
|Tijdschrift||European cells & materials|
|Status||Published - 2014|