Reference Data for the Ruff Figural Fluency Test Stratified by Age and Educational Level

Gerbrand J. Izaks*, Hanneke Joosten, Janneke Koerts, Ron T. Gansevoort, Joris P. Slaets

*Corresponding author voor dit werk

OnderzoeksoutputAcademicpeer review

33 Citaten (Scopus)
253 Downloads (Pure)


The Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) was developed to avoid the difficulties that were encountered in earlier tests of figural fluency. Although the test characteristics of the RFFT seem to be good and it is a valuable addition to neuropsychological assessments, reference data are still scarce. To this aim, we required 2,404 community dwelling persons in Groningen, the Netherlands to perform the RFFT. All 1,651 persons with a complete RFFT and known educational level formed the reference sample. Their age ranged from 35 to 82 years and their educational level from primary school to university grade. Ninety-six percent of the persons were of Western European descent. All tests were analyzed by two independent examiners and subsequently three measures were calculated: number of unique designs, number of perseverative errors and error ratio. The main finding was that performance on the RFFT was dependent on age and educational level. This was not only observed in older persons but also in young and middle-aged persons. Reference data for the three RFFT measures are presented in groups of five years of age ranging from 35-39 years to 75 years or older.

Originele taal-2English
Aantal pagina's8
TijdschriftPLoS ONE
Nummer van het tijdschrift2
StatusPublished - 10-feb.-2011


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