The analysis of complex mixtures, such as those of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is difficult by conventional methods of analysis. Chemometric methods provide a new way to solve such problems. Subwindow factor analysis (SFA) paired with the evolving window orthogonal projection (EWOP) method, has been used as a new evolving approach to the resolution of volatile components of Ramulus cinnamomi (RC). Compared with conventional chromatographic analysis, the chromatographic separation conditions necessary are greatly mitigated in our approach, yet the accuracy of qualitative and quantitative results is improved, because the measured data matrix has been resolved into chromatograms and mass spectra of the chemical components. Our method is, moreover, friendly to use and easy to program. Experimental results show the efficiency and convenience of the proposed approach. Forty-seven of the seventy-eight separated constituents in an essential oil, accounting for 89.55% of the sample, were identified by mass spectroscopy (MS).