Risk factors for adverse events induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

E. Suazo-Zepeda, M. Bokern, P. C. Vinke, T. J. N. Hiltermann, G. H. de Bock, G. Sidorenkov*

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

OnderzoeksoutputAcademicpeer review

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BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) can cause serious immune-related adverse events (irAEs). This study aimed to identify risk factors for all types of irAEs induced by ICIs in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), by systematic review and meta-analyses.

METHODS: A systematic search was performed in Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science by two independent reviewers. Studies were selected that included patients with NSCLC and evaluated characteristics of patients with and without irAEs induced by ICIs. Quality and risk of bias of the selected studies were assessed. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for risk factors of developing all type of irAEs, and separately for pneumonitis, interstitial lung disease and severe irAEs. With the objective of exploring sources of heterogeneity, stratified analyses were performed by quality and region.

RESULTS: 25 studies met the inclusion criteria. In total, the data of 6696 patients were pooled. 33 different risk factors for irAEs were reported. irAEs of interest were reported for 1653 (25%) of the patients. Risk factors related to the development of irAEs were: C-reactive protein, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), use of PD-1 inhibitor, high PD-L1 expression, an active or former smoking status, ground glass attenuation, and a better treatment response.

CONCLUSION: The identified risk factors for the development of these irAEs are mostly related to the alteration of the immune system, proinflammatory states and loss of immunological self-tolerance. Patients identified as having a higher risk for irAEs should be monitored more closely.

Originele taal-2English
Aantal pagina's12
TijdschriftCancer Immunology Immunotherapy
DOI's
StatusPublished - 30-jun-2021

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