BACKGROUND: Risk factors for nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections after solid organ transplant (SOT) are not well characterized. Here we aimed to describe these factors.
METHODS: Retrospective, multinational, 1:2 matched case-control study that included SOT recipients ≥12 years old diagnosed with NTM infection from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2018. Controls were matched on transplanted organ, NTM treatment center, and post-transplant survival greater than or equal to the time to NTM diagnosis. Logistic regression on matched pairs was used to assess associations between risk factors and NTM infections.
RESULTS: Analyses included 85 cases and 169 controls; (59% male, 88% white, median age at time of SOT of 54 years (IQR 40-62)). NTM infection occurred in kidney (42%), lung (35%), heart and liver (11% each), and pancreas transplant recipients (1%). Time from transplant to infection was 21.6 months (IQR 5.3-55.2). Most underlying comorbidities were evenly distributed between groups; however, cases were older at the time of NTM diagnosis, more frequently on systemic corticosteroids and had a lower lymphocyte count (all P < 0.05). In the multivariable model, older age at transplant (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.04; 95 confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.07), hospital admission within 90 days (aOR, 3.14; [1.41-6.98]), receipt of antifungals (aOR, 5.35; [1.7-16.91]), and lymphocyte-specific antibodies (aOR, 7.73, [1.07-56.14]), were associated with NTM infection.
CONCLUSION: Risk of NTM infection in SOT recipients was associated with older age at SOT, prior hospital admission, receipt of antifungals or lymphocyte-specific antibodies. NTM infection should be considered in SOT patients with these risk factors.
|Tijdschrift||Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America|
|Status||E-pub ahead of print - 26-jul-2022|