The purpose of this study was to investigate whether wheelchair propulsion biomechanics differ between individuals with different magnitudes of shoulder pain. Forty (age 36 11 years) manual wheelchair users propelled their own daily living wheelchair at 1.11 m.s(-1) for three minutes on a dual-roller ergometer. Shoulder pain was evaluated using the Performance Corrected Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (PC-WUSPI). Correlation analyses between spatio-temporal, kinetic and upper limb kinematic variables during wheelchair propulsion and PC-WUSPI scores were assessed. Furthermore, kinematic differences between wheelchair users with no or mild shoulder pain (n = 33) and moderate pain (n = 7) were investigated using statistical parametric mapping. Participant mean PC-WUSPI scores were 20.3 +/- 26.3 points and varied from zero up to 104 points. No significant correlations were observed between kinetic or spatio-temporal parameters of wheelchair propulsion and shoulder pain. However, lower inter-cycle variability of scapular internal/external rotation was associated with greater levels of shoulder pain (r = 0.35, P = 0.03). Wheelchair users with moderate pain displayed significantly lower scapular kinematic variability compared to those with mild or no pain between 17 and 51% of the push phase for internal rotation, between 31-42% and 77-100% of the push phase for downward rotation and between 28-36% and 53-65% of the push phase for posterior tilt. Lower scapular variability displayed by wheelchair users with moderate shoulder pain may reflect a more uniform distribution of repeated subacromial tissue stress imposed by propulsion. This suggests that lower scapular kinematic variability during propulsion may contribute towards the development of chronic shoulder pain. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.