Although Th2 driven inflammation is present in COPD, it is not clearly elucidated which COPD patients are affected. Since periostin is associated with Th2 driven inflammation and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)-response in asthma, it could function as a biomarker in COPD. The aim of this study was to analyze if serum periostin is elevated in COPD compared to healthy controls, if it is affected by smoking status, if it is linked to inflammatory cell counts in blood, sputum and endobronchial biopsies, and if periostin can predict ICS-response in COPD patients.Serum periostin levels were measured using Elecsys Periostin immunoassay. Correlations between periostin and inflammatory cell count in blood, sputum and endobronchial biopsies were analyzed. Additionally, the correlation between serum periostin levels and treatment responsiveness after 6 and 30 months was assessed using i.e. ΔFEV1% predicted, ΔCCQ score and ΔRV/TLC ratio. Forty-five COPD smokers, 25 COPD past-smokers, 22 healthy smokers and 23 healthy never-smokers were included. Linear regression analysis of serum periostin showed positive correlations age (B = 0.02, 95%CI 0.01-0.03) and FEV1% predicted (B = 0.01, 95%CI 0.01-0.02) in healthy smokers, but not in COPD patients In conclusion, COPD -smokers and -past-smokers have significantly higher periostin levels compared to healthy smokers, yet periostin is not suitable as a biomarker for Th2-driven inflammation or ICS-responsiveness in COPD.