Smoking, Alcohol Intake and Torque Teno Virus in Stable Kidney Transplant Recipients

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Torque Teno Virus (TTV) is a non-pathogenic virus that is highly prevalent among kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Its circulating load is associated with an immunological status in KTR and is considered a promising tool for guiding immunosuppression. To allow for optimal guidance, it is important to identify other determinants of TTV load. We aimed to investigate the potential association of smoking and alcohol intake with TTV load. For this cross-sectional study, serum TTV load was measured using PCR in stable kidney transplant recipients at ≥1 year after transplantation, and smoking status and alcohol intake were assessed through questionnaires and measurements of urinary cotinine and ethyl glucuronide. A total of 666 KTRs were included (57% male). A total of 549 KTR (82%) had a detectable TTV load (3.1 ± 1.5 log 10 copies/mL). In KTR with a detectable TTV load, cyclosporin and tacrolimus use were positively associated with TTV load (St. β = 0.46, p < 0.001 and St. β = 0.66, p < 0.001, respectively), independently of adjustment for potential confounders. Current smoking and alcohol intake of >20 g/day were negatively associated with TTV load (St. β = -0.40, p = 0.004 and St. β = -0.33, p = 0.009, respectively), independently of each other and of adjustment for age, sex, kidney function, time since transplantation and calcineurin inhibitor use. This strong association of smoking and alcohol intake with TTV suggests a need to account for the smoking status and alcohol intake when applying TTV guided immunosuppression in KTR.

Originele taal-2English
Artikelnummer2387
Aantal pagina's14
TijdschriftViruses
Volume15
Nummer van het tijdschrift12
DOI's
StatusPublished - 6-dec.-2023

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