Methylphenidate is one of the most widely used oral treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The drug is mainly absorbed in the small intestine and has low bioavailability. Accordingly, a high interindividual variability in terms of response to the treatment is known among ADHD patients treated with methylphenidate. Nonetheless, very little is known about the factors that influence the drug’s absorption and bioavailability. Gut microbiota has been shown to reduce the bioavailability of a wide variety of orally administered drugs. Here, we tested the ability of small intestinal bacteria to metabolize methylphenidate. In silico analysis identified several small intestinal bacteria to harbor homologues of the human carboxylesterase 1 enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of methylphenidate in the liver into the inactive form, ritalinic acid. Despite our initial results hinting towards possible bacterial hydrolysis of the drug, up to 60% of methylphenidate is spontaneously hydrolyzed in the absence of bacteria and this hydrolysis is pH-dependent. Overall, our results indicate that the stability of methylphenidate is compromised under certain pH conditions in the presence or absence of gut microbiota.