Unsolved questions in computational visual neuroscience research are whether and how neurons and their connecting cortical networks can adapt when normal vision is compromised by a neurodevelopmental disorder or damage to the visual system. This question on neuroplasticity is particularly relevant in the context of rehabilitation therapies that attempt to overcome limitations or damage, through either perceptual training or retinal and cortical implants. Studies on cortical neuroplasticity have generally made the assumption that neuronal population properties and the resulting visual field maps are stable in healthy observers. Consequently, differences in the estimates of these properties between patients and healthy observers have been taken as a straightforward indication for neuroplasticity. However, recent studies imply that the modeled neuronal properties and the cortical visual maps vary substantially within healthy participants, e.g., in response to specific stimuli or under the influence of cognitive factors such as attention. Although notable advances have been made to improve the reliability of stimulus-driven approaches, the reliance on the visual input remains a challenge for the interpretability of the obtained results. Therefore, we argue that there is an important role in the study of cortical neuroplasticity for approaches that assess intracortical signal processing and circuitry models that can link visual cortex anatomy, function, and dynamics.