Aim: To compare effects of three cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) formulations with and without alcohol and Tween80 on physico-chemical properties of salivary pellicles, bacterial detachment in vitro and bacterial killing in vivo.
Material and Methods: Adsorption of CPC to salivary pellicles in vitro was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. Adhesion and detachment of a co-adhering bacterial pair was determined in vitro using a flow chamber. Killing was evaluated after live/dead staining after acute single use in vivo on 24- and 72-h-old plaques after 2-week continuous use.
Results: The most pronounced effects on pellicle surface chemistry and hydrophobicity were observed after treatment with the alcohol-free formulation, while the pellicle thickness was not affected by any of the formulations. All CPC formulations detached up to 33% of the co-adhering pair from pellicle surfaces. Bacterial aggregate sizes during de novo deposition were enhanced after treatment with the alcohol-free formulation. Immediate and sustained killing in 24 and 72 h plaques after in vivo, acute single use as well as after 2-week continuous use were highest for the alcohol-free formulation.
Conclusions: CPC bioavailability in a formulation without alcohol and Tween80 could be demonstrated through measures of pellicle surface properties and bacterial interactions in vitro as well as bacteriocidal actions on oral biofilms in vivo.