Purpose Intensive screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers aims to improve breast cancer (BC) prognosis. Our aim is to clarify the prognostic impact of tumor size in BRCA mutation carriers with a pT1 BC, which is currently unclear. We are especially interested in differences between pT1a, pT1b, and pT1c regarding the prognosis of node-negative breast cancer, the effect of chemotherapy, and the prevalence of lymph node involvement. Methods For this study, BRCA1/2-associated BC patients were selected from a nationwide cohort. Primary outcomes were 10-year overall survival (OS) per pT1a-b-c group and the effect of chemotherapy on prognosis of node-negative BC, using Kaplan-Meier and Cox models. Finally, we evaluated lymph node involvement per pT1a-b-c group. Results 963 women with pT1 BRCA1/2-associated BC diagnosed between 1990 and 2017 were included, of which 679 had pN0 BC. After a median follow-up of 10.5 years, 10-year OS in patients without chemotherapy was 77.1% in pT1cN0 and lower than for pT1aN0 (91.4%, p = 0.119) and pT1bN0 (90.8%, p = 0.024). OS was better with than without chemotherapy for pT1cN0 (91.6% vs. 77.1%, p = 0.001; hazard ratio (HR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-1.48). Lymph node involvement was 24.9% in pT1c, 18.8% in pT1b, and 8.6% in pT1a. Conclusion Smaller tumor size is associated with better OS and less lymph node involvement in pT1 BRCA1/2-associated BC patients. The results suggest that early detection in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers of pT1a/b BC may reduce mortality and the need for systemic therapy.