Background Controversy exists on emergency setting as a risk factor for peritoneal metastases (PM) in colon cancer patients. Data in patients with obstruction are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of synchronous and metachronous PM, risk factors for the development of metachronous PM, and prognostic implications within a large nationwide cohort of left-sided obstructive colon cancer (LSOCC). Methods Patients with LSOCC treated between 2009 and 2016 were selected from the Dutch ColoRectal Audit. Additional treatment and long-term outcome data were retrospectively collected from original patient files in 75 hospitals in 2017. Results In total, 3038 patients with confirmed obstruction and without perforation were included. Synchronous PM (at diagnosis or <30 days postoperatively) were diagnosed in 148/2976 evaluable patients (5.0%), and 3-year cumulative metachronous PM rate was 9.9%. Multivariable Cox regression analyses revealed pT4 stage (HR 1.782, 95% CI 1.191-2.668) and pN2 stage (HR 2.101, 95% CI 1.208-3.653) of the primary tumor to be independent risk factors for the development of metachronous PM. Median overall survival in patients with or without synchronous PM was 20 and 63 months (p <0.001) and 3-year overall survival of patients that did or did not develop metachronous PM was 48.1% and 77.0%, respectively (p <0.001). Conclusion This population based study revealed a 5.0% incidence of synchronous peritoneal metastases in patients who underwent resection of left-sided obstructive colon cancer. The subsequent 3-year cumulative metachronous PM rate was 9.9%, with advanced tumor and nodal stage as independent risk factors for the development of PM.