Systemic oxidative stress may be associated with reduced IgG antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 in vaccinated kidney transplant recipients: A post-hoc analysis of the RECOVAC-IR observational study

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BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses an increased risk for severe illness and suboptimal vaccination responses in patients with kidney disease, in which oxidative stress may be involved. Oxidative stress can be reliably measured by determining circulating free thiols (R-SH, sulfhydryl groups), since R-SH are rapidly oxidized by reactive species. In this study, we aimed to examine the association between serum free thiols and the ability to mount a humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in kidney patients.

METHODS: Serum free thiol concentrations were measured in patients with chronic kidney disease stages 4/5 (CKD G4/5) (n = 46), on dialysis (n = 43), kidney transplant recipients (KTR) (n = 73), and controls (n = 50). Baseline serum free thiol and interferon-γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10) - a biomarker of the interferon response - were analyzed for associations with seroconversion rates and SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1)-specific IgG concentrations after two doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine.

RESULTS: Albumin-adjusted serum free thiol concentrations were significantly lower in patients with CKD G4/5 (P < 0.001), on dialysis (P < 0.001), and KTR (P < 0.001), as compared to controls. Seroconversion rates after full vaccination were markedly reduced in KTR (52.1%) and were significantly associated with albumin-adjusted free thiols (OR = 1.76, P = 0.033). After adjustment for MMF use, hemoglobin, and eGFR, this significance was not sustained (OR = 1.49, P = 0.241).

CONCLUSIONS: KTR show suboptimal serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, which is inversely associated with serum R-SH, reflecting systemic oxidative stress. Albeit this association was not robust to relevant confounding factors, it may at least partially be involved in the inability of KTR to generate a positive serological response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.

Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)14-24
Aantal pagina's11
TijdschriftFree Radical Biology and Medicine
Vroegere onlinedatum22-feb.-2024
StatusPublished - mrt.-2024

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