Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in common marmosets is a translationally relevant model of the chronic neurologic disease multiple sclerosis. Following the introduction of a new dietary supplement in our purpose-bred marmoset colony, the percentage of marmosets in which clinically evident EAE could be induced by sensitization against recombinant human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in IFA decreased from 100 to 65%. The reduced EAE susceptibility after the dietary change coincided with reduced Callitrichine herpesvirus 3 expression in the colony, an EBV-related gamma 1-herpesvirus associated with EAE. We then investigated, in a controlled study in marmoset twins, which disease-relevant parameters were affected by the dietary change. The selected twins had been raised on the new diet for at least 12 mo prior to the study. In twin siblings reverted to the original diet 8 wk prior to EAE induction, 100% disease prevalence (eight out of eight) was restored, whereas in siblings remaining on the new diet the EAE prevalence was 75% (six out of eight). Spinal cord demyelination, a classical hallmark of the disease, was significantly lower in new-diet monkeys than in monkeys reverted to the original diet. In new-diet monkeys, the proinflammatory T cell response to recombinant human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein was significantly reduced, and RNA-sequencing revealed reduced apoptosis and enhanced myelination in the brain. Systematic typing of the marmoset gut microbiota using 16S rRNA sequencing demonstrated a unique, Bifidobacteria-dominated composition, which changed after disease induction. In conclusion, targeted dietary intervention exerts positive effects on EAE-related parameters in multiple compartments of the marmoset's gutimmune-CNS axis.