The treatment of choice for insulinomas and focal lesions in congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is surgery. However, intraoperative detection can be challenging. This challenge could be overcome with intraoperative fluorescence imaging, which provides real-time lesion detection with a high spatial resolution. Here, a novel method for targeted near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging of glucagonlike peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R)-positive lesions, using the GLP-1 agonist exendin-4 labeled with IRDye 800CW, was examined in vitro and in vivo. Methods: A competitive binding assay was performed using Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells transfected with GLP-1R. Tracer biodistribution was determined in BALB/c nude mice bearing subcutaneous CHL-GLP-1R xenografts. In vivo NIR fluorescence imaging of CHL-GLP-1R xenografts was performed. Localization of the tracer in the pancreatic islets of BALB/c nude mice was examined using fluorescence microscopy. Laparoscopic imaging was performed to detect the fluorescent signal of the tracer in the pancreas of mini pigs. Results: Exendin-4-IRDye 800CW binds GLP-1R with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 3.96 nM. The tracer accumulates in CHL-GLP-1R xenografts. Subcutaneous CHL-GLP-1R xenografts were visualized using in vivo NIR fluorescence imaging. The tracer accumulates specifically in the pancreatic islets of mice, and a clear fluorescent signal was detected in the pancreas of mini pigs. Conclusion: These data provide the first in vivo evidence of the feasibility of targeted fluorescence imaging of GLP-1R-positive lesions. Intraoperative lesion delineation using exendin-4-IRDye 800CW could benefit open as well as laparoscopic surgical procedures for removal of insulinomas and focal lesions in CHI.