The kinetic behaviour of a naproxen human serum albumin conjugate (Nap(23)-HSA) was investigated in rats and in isolated perfused rat livers (IPRL), as compared to its active metabolite naproxen-lysine (Nap-lysine) and free naproxen. Through covalently linking the antiinflammatory drug naproxen to HSA, this drug can be selectively delivered to non parenchymal cells of the liver. Liver endothelial and Kupffer cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory liver diseases. Targeting naproxen to these cells might increase its efficacy and reduce the side effects.
The altered kinetic properties of Nap(23)-HSA, after i.v. injection of 22 mg.kg(-1), as compared to an equimolar amount of the uncoupled drug, were demonstrated in vivo by a decrease in the steady state volume of distribution (41 +/- 5 vs. 134 +/- 19 ml.kg(-1)), a decrease in its clearance (0.48 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.63 +/- 0.1 ml.min(-1).kg(-1)), a shorter plasma half life (60 +/- 11 vs. 152 +/- 44 min) and a sustained biliary excretion.
Liver targeting of Nap(23)-HSA was clearly demonstrated: drug content of the liver 180 min after injection was about 30 times higher for Nap(23)-HSA as compared to naproxen itself. The IPRL experiments showed that the V(max) of hepatic removal of the conjugate was 40 mu g.min(-1).g liver(-1). With doses below receptor saturation a rapid removal of the conjugate (t(1/2) = 6 min) from the perfusion medium was found.
In conclusion, this study demonstrates the saturable uptake of Nap(23)-HSA and its lysosomal degradation in both in vivo and IPRL, experiments. Covalently linked naproxen is released as Nap-lysine. This active metabolite accumulates in Kupffer and endothelial cells in which it reaches therapeutic concentrations. Release from these cells leads to rapid uptake by hepatocytes and carrier mediated excretion into bile. Levels of Nap-lysine in bile and plasma reflect the slowest step in its generation: the proteolytic release in endothelial and Kupffer cells.
|Tijdschrift||Journal of Drug Targeting|
|Nummer van het tijdschrift||5|
|Status||Published - 1998|