Teachers can feel uncomfortable teaching sexuality education when the content conflicts with their cultural values and beliefs. However, more research is required to understand how to resolve conflicts between teachers’ values and beliefs and those implicit in comprehensive approaches to sexuality education. This study uses cultural schema theory to identify teachers’ cultural schemas of teaching sexuality education and the internal conflicts arising between them. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 secondary school teachers in Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. Embedded in a context of morality, conflicting cultural schemas of sexuality education and young people’s sexual citizenship in traditional and present-day Ugandan society were found: young people are both innocent and sexually active; sexuality education both encourages and prevents sexual activity; and teachers need to teach sexuality education, but it is considered immoral for them to do so. In countries such as Uganda, supportive school regulations and a mandate from society could help teachers feel more comfortable adopting comprehensive approaches to sexuality education.