Objective: A considerable amount of children with anxiety disorders do not benefit sufficiently from cognitive behavioral treatment. The present study examines the predictive role of child temperament, parent temperament and parenting style in the context of treatment outcome.
Method: Participants were 145 children and adolescents (ages 8-18) with DSM-IV-TR anxiety disorders who received a 12-session CBT program and were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment and three months follow-up. Multiple-regression analyses were used to evaluate the following pretreatment and posttreatment variables as potential predictors of treatment response at follow-up: baseline level of anxiety symptoms, child reported maternal and paternal rearing style (emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection), parent reported child temperament traits (negative affect, effortful control, and extraversion), and mothers' and fathers' self-report temperament traits.
Results: More maternal negative affect and less emotional warmth as perceived by the child before treatment were related to less favorable treatment outcome (accounting for 29% of the variance in anxiety at follow-up). Furthermore, maternal negative affect and children's extraversion measured after treatment also predicted anxiety at follow-up (together accounting for 19% of the variance). Paternal temperament and parenting style were unrelated to treatment outcome, as were children's pretreatment temperament traits.
Conclusion: The results suggest that tailoring intervention to include strategies to reduce maternal negative affect and promote an emotional warm rearing style may improve treatment outcome. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.