Sex determination, the developmental process by which sexually dimorphic phenotypes are established, evolves fast. Evolutionary turnover in a sex determination pathway may occur via selection on alleles that are genetically linked to a new master sex determining locus on a newly formed proto-sex chromosome. Species with polygenic sex determination, in which master regulatory genes are found on multiple different proto-sex chromosomes, are informative models to study the evolution of sex determination and sex chromosomes. House flies are such a model system, with male determining loci possible on all six chromosomes and a female-determiner on one of the chromosomes as well. The two most common male-determining proto-Y chromosomes form latitudinal clines on multiple continents, suggesting that temperature variation is an important selection pressure responsible for maintaining polygenic sex determination in this species. Temperature-dependent fitness effects could be manifested through temperature-dependent gene expression differences across proto-Y chromosome genotypes. These gene expression differences may be the result of cis regulatory variants that affect the expression of genes on the proto-sex chromosomes, or trans effects of the proto-Y chromosomes on genes elswhere in the genome. We used RNA-seq to identify genes whose expression depends on proto-Y chromosome genotype and temperature in adult male house flies. We found no evidence for ecologically meaningful temperature-dependent expression differences of sex determining genes between male genotypes, but we were probably not sampling an appropriate developmental time-point to identify such effects. In contrast, we identified many other genes whose expression depends on the interaction between proto-Y chromosome genotype and temperature, including genes that encode proteins involved in reproduction, metabolism, lifespan, stress response, and immunity. Notably, genes with genotype-by-temperature interactions on expression were not enriched on the proto-sex chromosomes. Moreover, there was no evidence that temperature-dependent expression is driven by chromosome-wide cis-regulatory divergence between the proto-Y and proto-X alleles. Therefore, if temperature-dependent gene expression is responsible for differences in phenotypes and fitness of proto-Y genotypes across house fly populations, these effects are driven by a small number of temperature-dependent alleles on the proto-Y chromosomes that may have trans effects on the expression of genes on other chromosomes.
|Nummer van het tijdschrift||22|
|Status||Published - nov.-2021|