The association between clinical, sociodemographic, familial, and environmental factors and treatment resistance in schizophrenia: A machine-learning-based approach

Carmen F.M. van Hooijdonk*, Marieke van der Pluijm, Bart M. de Vries, Matthijs Cysouw, Behrooz Z. Alizadeh, Claudia J.P. Simons, Therese A.M.J. van Amelsvoort, Jan Booij, Jean Paul Selten, Lieuwe de Haan, Frederike Schirmbeck, Elsmarieke van de Giessen

*Corresponding author voor dit werk

OnderzoeksoutputAcademicpeer review

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Background: Prediction of treatment resistance in schizophrenia (TRS) would be helpful to reduce the duration of ineffective treatment and avoid delays in clozapine initiation. We applied machine learning to identify clinical, sociodemographic, familial, and environmental variables that are associated with TRS and could potentially predict TRS in the future. 

Study design: Baseline and follow-up data on trait(-like) variables from the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study were used. For the main analysis, we selected patients with non-affective psychotic disorders who met TRS (n = 200) or antipsychotic-responsive criteria (n = 423) throughout the study. For a sensitivity analysis, we only selected patients who met TRS (n = 76) or antipsychotic-responsive criteria (n = 123) at follow-up but not at baseline. Random forest models were trained to predict TRS in both datasets. SHapley Additive exPlanation values were used to examine the variables' contributions to the prediction. 

Study results: Premorbid functioning, age at onset, and educational degree were most consistently associated with TRS across both analyses. Marital status, current household, intelligence quotient, number of moves, and family loading score for substance abuse also consistently contributed to the prediction of TRS in the main or sensitivity analysis. The diagnostic performance of our models was modest (area under the curve: 0.66–0.69). 

Conclusions: We demonstrate that various clinical, sociodemographic, familial, and environmental variables are associated with TRS. Our models only showed modest performance in predicting TRS. Prospective large multi-centre studies are needed to validate our findings and investigate whether the model's performance can be improved by adding data from different modalities.

Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)132-141
Aantal pagina's10
TijdschriftSchizophrenia Research
Volume262
DOI's
StatusPublished - dec.-2023

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