The first European guidelines on phenylketonuria: its usefulness and implications for BH4 responsiveness testing

Roeland A F Evers, Annemiek M J van Wegberg, Karen Anjema, Charlotte M A Lubout, Esther van Dam, Danique van Vliet, Nenad Blau, Francjan J van Spronsen*

*Corresponding author voor dit werk

OnderzoeksoutputAcademicpeer review

14 Citaten (Scopus)
93 Downloads (Pure)


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate and improve the usefulness of the 48-hour BH4 loading test and to assess genotype for BH4 responsiveness prediction, using the new definition of BH4 responsiveness from the European guidelines, as well as an amended definition.

METHOD: Applying the definition of the European guidelines (≥ 100% increase in natural protein tolerance) and an amended definition (≥ 100% increase in natural protein tolerance or tolerating a safe natural protein intake) to a previous dataset (Anjema et al 2013), we firstly assessed the positive predictive value (PPV) of the 48-hour BH4 loading test using a cutoff value of 30%. Then, we tried to improve this PPV by using different cutoff values and separate time points. Lastly, using the BIOPKU database, we compared predicted BH4 responsiveness (according to genotype) and genotypic phenotype values (GPVs) in BH4 -responsive and BH4 -unresponsive patients.

RESULTS: The PPV of the 48-hour loading test was 50.0% using the definition of the European guidelines, and 69.4% when applying the amended definition of BH4 responsiveness. Higher cutoff values led to a higher PPV, but resulted in an increase in false-negative tests. Parameters for genotype overlapped between BH4 -responsive and BH4 -unresponsive patients, although BH4 responsiveness was not observed in patients with a GPV below 2.4.

CONCLUSION: The 48-hour BH4 loading test is not as useful as previously considered and cannot be improved easily, whereas genotype seems mainly helpful in excluding BH4 responsiveness. Overall, the definition of BH4 responsiveness and BH4 responsiveness testing require further attention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)244-250
Aantal pagina's20
TijdschriftJournal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Nummer van het tijdschrift2
Vroegere onlinedatum10-sep.-2019
StatusPublished - 2020


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