Recent empirical findings highlight how economic geography is important in understanding various political outcomes. However, these results are typically based on single elections or referendums. This article overcomes the weaknesses of such data by identifying and analysing the long-term structure and evolution of fundamental political ideologies in Switzerland. The results assess the existence of significant political ideology divides among Swiss municipalities and indicate that these divides are associated with inequalities in local economic welfare, migration flows and urbanity. Overall, this article suggests that linkages between economic geography and political preferences are not restricted to specific issues or elections; rather, they also involve the more profound structure of political ideologies.