Hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn occurs more frequently in Indonesia. Therefore, it is important that pediatric residents in Indonesia acquire adequate knowledge of hyperbilirubinemia management. This study aims to determine the pediatric residents' knowledge on hyperbilirubinemia management, whether they follow recommended guidelines, and whether differences exist between five large Indonesian teaching hospitals. We handed out a 25-question questionnaire on hyperbilirubinemia management to pediatric residents at five teaching hospitals. A total of 250 questionnaires were filled in completely, ranging from 14 to 113 respondents per hospital. Approximately 76% of the respondents used the Kramer score to recognize neonatal jaundice. Twenty-four percent correctly plotted the total serum bilirubin levels (TSB) on the phototherapy (PT) nomograms provided by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) for full-term and nearly full-term infants. Regarding preterm infants <35 weeks' gestational age, 66% of the respondents plotted TSB levels on the AAP nomogram, although this nomogram doesn't apply to this category of infants. Seventy percent of residents knew when to perform an exchange transfusion whereas 27% used a fixed bilirubin cut-off value of 20 mg/dL. Besides PT, 25% reported using additional pharmaceutical treatments, included albumin, phenobarbitone, ursodeoxycholic acid and immunoglobulins, while 47% of the respondents used sunlight therapy, as alternative treatment. The limited knowledge of the pediatric residents could be one factor for the higher incidence of severe hyperbilirubinemia and its sequelae. The limited knowledge of the residents raises doubts about the knowledge of the supervisors and the training of the residents since pediatric residents receive training from their supervisors.