BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that catalyses the metabolism of tryptophan, may play a detrimental role in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). IDO can be inhibited by 1-methyl-tryptophan, which exists in a D (D-MT) or L (L-MT) isomer. These forms show different pharmacological effects besides IDO inhibition. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether these isomers can play a protective role in renal IRI, either IDO-dependent or independent.
EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We studied the effect of both isomers in a rat renal IRI model with a focus on IDO-dependent and independent effects.
KEY RESULTS: Both MT isomers reduced creatinine and BUN levels, with D-MT having a faster onset of action but shorter duration and L-MT a slower onset but longer duration (24 h and 48 h vs 48 h and 96 h reperfusion time). Interestingly, this effect was not exclusively dependent on IDO inhibition, but rather from decreased TLR4 signalling, mimicking changes in renal function. Additionally, L-MT increased the overall survival of rats. Moreover, both MT isomers interfered with TGF-β signalling and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In order to study the effect of isomers in all mechanisms involved in IRI, a series of in vitro experiments was performed. The isomers affected signalling pathways in NK cells and tubular epithelial cells, as well as in dendritic cells and T cells.
CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: This study shows that both MT isomers have a renoprotective effect after ischemia-reperfusion injury, mostly independent of IDO inhibition, involving mutually different mechanisms. We bring novel findings in the pharmacological properties and mechanism of action of MT isomers, which could become a novel therapeutic target of renal IRI.
|Tijdschrift||Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie|
|Status||Published - mrt-2021|