The rubber hand illusion (RHI) is a widely applied paradigm to investigate changes in body representations. Extensive scientific interest has produced a great variability in the observed results and many contradictory findings have been reported. Taking into account the numerous variations in the experimental implementation of the RHI, many of these contradictive findings can be reconciled, but to date a thorough analysis of the methodological differences between RHI studies is lacking.
Here we summarize and analyse methodological differences between RHI studies. In distinction from other reviews focusing on the integration of findings from various studies, the present paper is devoted to the differences in (i) the experimental setup, (ii) the method used to induce the RHI, (iii) the quantification of its effects, and (iv) aspects of the experimental design and data analysis. This approach will provide a reference frame for the interpretation of previous studies as well as for the design of future studies.