Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has been recommended for treatment optimization in tuberculosis (TB) but is only is used in certain countries e.g. USA, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and Tanzania. Recently, new drugs have emerged and PK studies in TB are continuing, which contributes further evidence for TDM in TB. The aim of this review is to provide an update on drugs used in TB, treatment strategies for these drugs, and TDM to support broader implementation.
This review describes the different drug classes used for TB, multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB), along with their pharmacokinetics, dosing strategies, TDM and sampling strategies. Moreover, the review discusses TDM for patient TB and renal or liver impairment, patients co-infected with HIV or hepatitis, and special patient populations - children and pregnant women.
TB treatment has a long history of using 'one size fits all.' This has contributed to treatment failures, treatment relapses, and the selection of drug-resistant isolates. While challenging in resource-limited circumstances, TDM offers the clinician the opportunity to individualize and optimize treatment early in treatment. This approach may help to refine treatment and thereby reduce adverse effects and poor treatment outcomes. Funding, training, and randomized controlled trials are needed to advance the use of TDM for patients with TB.