TLR2 and TLR4 activity in monocytes and macrophages after exposure to amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and erythromycin

Luis Silva Lagos*, Thy Viet Luu, Bart De Haan, Marijke Faas, Paul De Vos

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

OnderzoeksoutputAcademicpeer review

22 Downloads (Pure)

Samenvatting

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections but also impact immunity. This is usually attributed to antibiotic-induced dysbiosis of the microbiota, but antibiotics may have a direct effect on immune cells and immunity-associated receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs).

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether antibiotics alter TLR2/1, TLR2/6 and TLR4 activity in immune cells.

METHODS: We evaluated the effects of amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and erythromycin on TLR2/1-, TLR2/6- and TLR4-induced NF-κB activation in THP1-XBlue™-MD2-CD14 cells. Furthermore, we studied TNF-α and IL-6 levels in THP-1-derived macrophages after exposure to these antibiotics and TLR ligands.

RESULTS: Amoxicillin had no effect on any of the TLRs studied. However, ciprofloxacin reduced TLR2/1, TLR2/6 and TLR4 activity in THP1-XBlue™-MD2-CD14 cells and decreased TLR2/1-induced TNF-α and IL-6 in macrophages. Doxycycline reduced TLR2/6 and TLR4 activity in THP1-XBlue™-MD2-CD14 cells and TNF-α and IL-6 levels in response to TLR2/6 stimulation in macrophages. Erythromycin decreased TLR2/1 and TLR4 activity in THP1-XBlue™-MD2-CD14 cells without changes in TNF-α and IL-6 levels in macrophages. In addition, ciprofloxacin decreased the expression of TLR2 mRNA.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that some antibiotics may attenuate TLR-dependent monocyte/macrophage responses and likely reduce bacterial clearance. The latter is particularly important in infections with AMR bacteria, where misprescribed antibiotics not only fail in control of AMR infections but might also weaken host defence mechanisms by limiting innate immune responses. Our data suggest that efforts should be made to prevent the deterioration of the immune response during and after antibiotic treatment.

Originele taal-2English
Artikelnummerdkac254
Aantal pagina's12
TijdschriftThe Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
DOI's
StatusE-pub ahead of print - 28-jul-2022

Citeer dit