Diverse lines of research testify a link, presumably causal, between immune dysregulation and the development, course and clinical outcome of psychiatric disorders. However, there is a large heterogeneity among the patients? individual immune profile and this heterogeneity prevents the development of precise diagnostic tools and the identification of therapeutic targets. The aim of this review was to delineate possible subgroups of patients on the basis of clinical dimensions, investigating whether they could lead to particular immune signatures and tailored treatments. We discuss six clinical entry points; genetic liability to immune dysregula-tion, childhood maltreatment, metabolic syndrome, cognitive dysfunction, negative symptoms and treatment resistance. We describe the associated immune signature and outline the effects of anti-inflammatory drugs so far. Finally, we discuss advantages of this approach, challenges and future research directions.
(c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)