Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. The societal health burden it represents can be reduced by taking preventive measures and developing more effective therapies. Reaching these goals, however, requires a better understanding of the pathophysiological processes leading to and occurring in the diseased heart. In the last 5 years, several biological advances applying single-cell technologies have enabled researchers to study cardiovascular diseases with unprecedented resolution. This has produced many new insights into how specific cell types change their gene expression level, activation status and potential cellular interactions with the development of cardiovascular disease, but a comprehensive overview of the clinical implications of these findings is lacking. In this review, we summarize and discuss these recent advances and the promise of single-cell technologies from a translational perspective across the cardiovascular disease continuum, covering both animal and human studies, and explore the future directions of the field.