Transport receptor occupancy in nuclear pore complex mimics

Alessio Fragasso, Hendrik W. de Vries, John Andersson, Eli O. van der Sluis, Erik van der Giessen, Patrick R. Onck*, Cees Dekker*

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

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Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) regulate all molecular transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells. Intrinsically disordered Phe-Gly nucleoporins (FG-Nups) line the central conduit of NPCs to impart a selective barrier where large proteins are excluded unless bound to a transport receptor (karyopherin; Kap). Here, we assess “Kap-centric” NPC models, which postulate that Kaps participate in establishing the selective barrier. We combine biomimetic nanopores, formed by tethering Nsp1 to the inner wall of a solid-state nanopore, with coarse-grained modeling to show that yeast Kap95 exhibits two populations in Nsp1-coated pores: one population that is transported across the pore in milliseconds, and a second population that is stably assembled within the FG mesh of the pore. Ionic current measurements show a conductance decrease for increasing Kap concentrations and noise data indicate an increase in rigidity of the FG-mesh. Modeling reveals an accumulation of Kap95 near the pore wall, yielding a conductance decrease. We find that Kaps only mildly affect the conformation of the Nsp1 mesh and that, even at high concentrations, Kaps only bind at most 8% of the FG-motifs in the nanopore, indicating that Kap95 occupancy is limited by steric constraints rather than by depletion of available FG-motifs. Our data provide an alternative explanation of the origin of bimodal NPC binding of Kaps, where a stable population of Kaps binds avidly to the NPC periphery, while fast transport proceeds via a central FG-rich channel through lower affinity interactions between Kaps and the cohesive domains of Nsp1. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)9689–9703
Aantal pagina's15
TijdschriftNano Research
Volume15
Nummer van het tijdschrift11
Vroegere onlinedatum1-jul-2022
DOI's
StatusPublished - nov-2022

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